Cytochrome oxidase

Catalase and oxidase tests - YouTube

Cytochrome Oxidase Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 97882; References; Contributed by; The electron transport system (ETS) is an energy production system for aerobic organisms found in the mitochondria of cells. It is the third and final step in cellular respiration, which is the process by which the cell produces energy Cytochrome oxidase. Cytochrome oxidase (cytochrome c: O 2 oxidoreductase, EC is the enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cytochrome c by oxygen. Two cytochromes have been assigned a role in cytochrome oxidase, namely cytochrome a and, as first shown by Keilin and Hartree (1939), cytochrome a 3 (Chance, 1952)

cytochrome oxidase: n. An oxidizing enzyme that contains iron and a porphyrin and is found in the mitochondrial membrane, where it catalyzes the transfer of electrons to oxygen as part of the electron transport chain, ultimately leading to the formation of ATP Cytochrome oxidase definition is - an iron-porphyrin enzyme important in cellular respiration due to its ability to catalyze the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c in the presence of oxygen Cytochrome c oxidase, shown here, takes these electrons and attaches them to an oxygen molecule. Then, a few hydrogen ions are added as well, forming two water molecules. Charging the Battery. The reaction of oxygen and hydrogen to form water is a favorable process, releasing a good deal of energy

Summary: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. This component is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes Cytochrome c oxidase I (COX1) also known as mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I (MT-CO1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT-CO1 gene. In other eukaryotes, the gene is called COX1, CO1, or COI. Cytochrome c oxidase I is the main subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex. Mutations in MT-CO1 have been associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), acquired.

Cytochrome Oxidase - Chemistry LibreText

  1. Cytochrome P450 aromatic O-demethylase, which is made of two distinct promiscuous parts: a cytochrome P450 protein (GcoA) and three domain reductase, is significant for its ability to convert Lignin, the aromatic biopolymer common in plant cell walls, into renewable carbon chains in a catabolic set of reactions
  2. e if a bacterium produces certain cytochrome c oxidases. It uses disks impregnated with a reagent such as N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenedia
  3. Cytochrome function is linked to the reversible redox change from ferrous (Fe(II)) to the ferric (Fe(III)) oxidation state of the iron found in the heme core. In addition to the classification by the IUBMB into four cytochrome classes, several additional classifications such as cytochrome o [3] and cytochrome P450 can be found in biochemical literature
  4. Cytochrome oxidase inhibition has been shown to induce a hibernation-like or suspended-animation state. 45, 46 Reversible inhibition of cytochrome oxidase with carbon monoxide arrests embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos yet preserves their viability in hypoxic conditions. 45 In addition, noncompetitive cytochrome oxidase inhibition with inhaled hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) induces a.
  5. Cytochrome oxidase (CO) is a useful endogenous metabolic marker for neurons, since the nervous system heavily depends on aerobic metabolism for its energy supply and cytochrome oxidase plays an essential role in mitochondrial aerobic energy metabolism (Wong-Riley 1989).In the monkey dentate gyrus, CO-activity is highest in the outer two thirds of the molecular layer and relatively low in the.
  6. See also. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I; Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II Cytochrome c oxidase subunit III References ^ Tsukihara T., Aoyama H., Yamashita E., Tomizaki T., Yamaguchi H., Shinzawa-Itoh K., Nakashima R., Yaono R., Yoshikawa S. (1995) Structures of metal sites of oxidized bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 Å. Science 269, 1069-107
  7. al enzymes of respiratory chains. The two main classes are cytochrome c oxidases, and quinol oxidases. The common features are: There are two catalytic subunits, I and II; Subunit I contains two heme centers

Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a member of the heme-copper oxygen reductase superfamily, which encompasses the membrane-bound terminal enzymes in the electron transfer chain in organisms that utilize oxygen.These membrane-bound enzymes catalyze the 4-electron reduction of O 2 to two water molecules and use the free energy generated to pump four protons across the membrane in which they are. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzing the transfer of electrons from reduced cytochrome c to molecular oxygen. It is composed of 13 structural subunits, three of which are encoded in mtDNA and form the catalytic core of the enzyme. In ad Cytochrome c oxidase synonyms, Cytochrome c oxidase pronunciation, Cytochrome c oxidase translation, English dictionary definition of Cytochrome c oxidase. n. An oxidizing enzyme that contains iron and a porphyrin and is found in the mitochondrial membrane, where it catalyzes the transfer of electrons to oxygen..

Cytochrome Oxidase - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been Das Enzym Cytochrom-c-Oxidase (COX), genauer Cytochrom c: Sauerstoff-Oxidoreduktase (systematischer Name), Cytochrom-aa 3-Komplex oder auch Komplex IV der mitochondrialen Atmungskette genannt, ist eine Oxidoreduktase.Der bei Bakterien aus drei, bei Eukaryoten aus dreizehn Untereinheiten bestehende Enzymkomplex katalysiert in einer gekoppelten Reaktion die Oxidation von Cytochrom c mit der. This video describes the cytochrome oxidase test with its purpose, principle, requirements and result interpretation Cytochrome C oxidase deficiency (COX deficiency) is a condition that can affect several parts of the body including the skeletal muscles, heart, brain and liver. There are four types of COX deficiency differentiated by symptoms and age of onset: benign infantile mitochondrial type, French-Canadian type, infantile mitochondrial myopathy type, and Leigh syndrome Component of the cytochrome c oxidase, the last enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain which drives oxidative phosphorylation. The respiratory chain contains 3 multisubunit complexes succinate dehydrogenase (complex II, CII), ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cytochrome b-c1 complex, complex III, CIII) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV, CIV), that cooperate to transfer.

Cytochrome oxidase definition of cytochrome oxidase by

Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency is a genetic condition that can affect several parts of the body, including the muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles), the heart, the brain, or the liver.Signs and symptoms of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency usually begin before age 2 but can appear later in mildly affected individuals.. The severity of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency varies widely among. Cytochrome C oxidase is an essential enzyme that is active in subcellular structures that help to regulate energy production (mitochondria). Four distinct forms of Cytochrome C Oxidase deficiency have been identified. The range and severity of symptoms varies greatly from case to case Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, mitochondrialCytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, mitochondria Cytochrome oxidase in energy transduction The role of cytochrome oxidase for energy conservation cannot be over- emphasized. Quite apart from its role in producing a proton gradient by virtue of the overall reaction in Eqn (1), the action of cytochrome oxidase as an energy trans- ducer has been under question

Define cytochrome oxidase. cytochrome oxidase synonyms, cytochrome oxidase pronunciation, cytochrome oxidase translation, English dictionary definition of cytochrome oxidase. n. An oxidizing enzyme that contains iron and a porphyrin and is found in the mitochondrial membrane, where it catalyzes the transfer of electrons to oxygen.. Other articles where Cytochrome oxidase is discussed: transition metal: Biological functions of transition metals: in plants and microorganisms; (2) cytochrome oxidase, which contains heme and copper in a 1:1 ratio; (3) tyrosinases, which catalyze the formation of melanin (brownish-black pigments occurring in hair, skin, and retina of higher animals) and were the first enzymes in which.

Cytochrome Oxidase protocol.docx 1997 CYTOCHROME OXIDASE PROTOCOL PRINCIPLE: Cytochrome oxidase (COX) is the collective name for Complex IV of the oxidative respiratory chain of enzymes located in mitochondria. This method is a modification of the Nadi reaction. The use of 3,3' diaminobenzidine (DAB) results in a brown insoluble compound at. We assayed cytochrome oxidase and other electron transport chain activities in platelet mitochondria isolated from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Five of 6 patients had striking reductions of platelet cytochrome oxidase activity (patient mean, 83.72 +/- 82.99 nmol/min/mg; control mean, 167. Cytochrome c oxidase kit is used for the fast and simple measurement of cytochrome c oxidase activity 1-2. In addition, this kit also allows for the detection of intact mitochondrial outer membrane. This product is for research purposes only and not for use in animals, humans, or diagnostic procedures Cytochrome c oxidase is a crucial enzyme in aerobic energy metabolism, serving as the final electron acceptor complex in the mitochondrial electron transport. It catalyzes electron transfer from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen, reducing the latter to water, and yields substantial energy that drives the formation of a proton gradient that is then employed to synthesize cellular ATP [ 15 ] cytochrome: [ si´to-krōm ] any of a class of hemoproteins , widely distributed in animal and plant tissue, whose main function is electron transport; distinguished.

Related to oxidase: cytochrome oxidase, monoamine oxidase, Xanthine oxidase, Glucose oxidase, Oxidase test. oxidase [ok´sĭ-dās] any of a class of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen independently of hydrogen peroxide Abstract. The cytochrome c oxidase complex (CcO) catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by using electrons from ferrocytochrome c. Redox free energy released in this highly exergonic process is utilized to drive the translocation of protons across a transmembrane electrochemical gradient As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists Cytochrome oxidase and its derivatives. 9. Spectrophotometric studies on the rapid reaction of ferrous cytochrome c oxidase with molecular oxygen under conditions of complete and partial oxygenation The reactions of horse heart cytochrome c with succinate-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome oxidase were studied as a function of ionic strength using both spectrophotometric and oxygen electrode assay techniques. The kinetic parameter Vmax/Km for both reactions decreased very rapidly as the ioni

Since cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a critical regulator of OXPHOS, we created a mouse model with isolated dysfunction in T cells by targeting a gene, COX10, that produces mitochondrial disease in humans. COX dysfunction resulted in increased apoptosis following activation in vitro and immunodeficiency in vivo Cytochrome cbb(3). Cytochrome oxidase. Warburg's respiratory enzyme. Reaction catalysed; 4 ferrocytochrome c + O(2) + 4 H(+) => 4 ferricytochrome c + 2 H(2)O: Cofactor(s) Cu cation. Comment(s) An oligomeric membrane heme-Cu:O(2) reductase-type enzyme that terminates the respiratory chains of aerobic and facultative aerobic organisms We determined the structure of the Escherichia coli cytochrome bd-I oxidase by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy to a resolution of 2.7 angstroms. Our structure contains a previously unknown accessory subunit CydH, the L-subfamily-specific Q-loop domain, a structural ubiquinone-8 cofactor, an active-site density interpreted as dioxygen, distinct water-filled proton channels, and an. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), a membrane enzyme in the respiratory chain, catalyzes oxygen reduction by coupling electron and proton transfer through the enzyme with a proton pump across the membrane. In all crystals reported to date, bovine CcO exists as a dimer with the same intermonomer contacts, whereas CcOs and related enzymes from prokaryotes exist as monomers

(also cytochrome a 3), an enzyme of the oxido-reductase class; the final component of the chain of respiratory enzymes that carry electrons from the cytochrome c to molecular oxygen. Cytochrome oxidase was discovered in 1926 by the German scientist O. Warburg (Warburg's respiratory enzyme). In plant and animal cells, it is localized on the inner membrane of mitochrondria Cytochrome c Oxidase Assay Kit sufficient for 100 tests, soluble and membrane bound mitochondria; find Sigma-Aldrich-CYTOCOX1 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich

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Learn about Cytochrome oxidase in electron transport chai Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chains of mitochondria and aerobic bacteria, catalyzes electron transfer from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen, reducing the latter to.

The purpose of this chapter is to describe in more detail what is known of the enzymatic and structural properties of cytochrome oxidase. There are several reasons for emphasizing this particular respiratory complex. Cytochrome oxidase is an insoluble lipoprotein complex that can be isolated in high yields by relatively simple procedures Cytochrome C Oxidase Activity Assay Kit (ab239711) is simple, fast and high-throughput adaptable. This assay kit can be used for purified mitochondria or tissue extracts containing mitochondria. The kit provides for the fast and simple measurement of Cytochrome c oxidase activity on a 96-well plate format シトクロムcオキシダーゼ (cytochrome c oxidase, COX) または複合体IV(Complex IV)またはcytochrome a 3 は、バクテリアおよびミトコンドリアで見られる膜貫通タンパク質複合体の一つである。. ミトコンドリア膜(またはバクテリア膜)における電子伝達系の最後の酵素であり、4分子のシトクロムcから. A cupriferous cytochrome of the a type that catalyzes the oxidation of four molecules of ferrocytochrome c by molecular oxygen to produce four molecules of ferricytochrome c and 2H 2 O. A part of Complex IV of the respiratory chain. A deficiency of one or more of the polypeptides of this complex results in neuronal loss in the brain leading to psychomotor retardation and neurodegenerative disease Herein, a type of non-noble metal nanozyme as an ORR electrocatalyst, with Fe-Cu dual atomic sites embedded in three-dimensional porous N-doped carbon (FeCu-DA/NC), is fabricated by mimicking both the constituents of active centers and enzymatic microenvironment of Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO)

Cytochrome c oxidase models: synthesis and reactivity of iron( III )-copper( II ) complexes of deuterohaemin-polybenzimidazole dinucleating ligands. J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1994, 90 (22) , 3203-3210. DOI: 10.1039/DT9940003203 cytochrome c: ( sī'tō-krōm ), [MIM*123970] The mobile cytochrome that transports electrons from Complex III to Complex IV of the respiratory chain

Cytochrome Oxidase Definition of Cytochrome Oxidase by

PDB-101: Molecule of the Month: Cytochrome c Oxidase

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, also known as cytochrome c oxidase polypeptide II, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT-CO2 gene. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, abbreviated COXII, COX2, COII, or MT-CO2, is the second subunit of cytochrome c oxidase.It is also one of the three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoded subunits (MT-CO1, MT-CO2, MT-CO3) of respiratory complex IV 1 Definition. Bei der Cytochrom-c-Oxidase (COX) handelt es sich um einen Komplex der mitochondrialen Atmungskette, welcher die Oxidation von Cytochrom c und die damit verbundenen Elektronenübertragung und Reduktion von O 2 zu H 2 O katalysiert.. 2 Aufbau. Die COX ist als großer Enzymkomplex in der inneren Mitochondrienmembran verankert und besteht aus 13 Proteinuntereinheiten. 10 dieser. Cytochrome c oxidase is responsible for reduction of molecular oxygen to water using reducing equivalents donated by cytochrome c and for site 3 energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. A mechanism-based model of the cytochrome c oxidase reaction is presented in which transfer of reducing equivalents from the lower- to the higher-potential region of the coupling site occurs against an. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is an oligomeric complex localized within the mitochondrial inner membrane. Assembly of the active oxidase complex requires the coordinate assembly of subunits synthesized in both the cytoplasm and the mitochondrion. In addition, assembly is dependent on the insertion of five types of cofactors, including two hemes, three copper ions, and one Zn, Mg, and Na ion Structure of cytochrome oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans. The following pictures are from Iwata et al. (1995) Cytochrome Oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans. Nature 376 660-669; a more complete set can be found on the cytochrome oxidase home page. Click on thumbnails for larger image. Left: Cytochrome oxidase viewed from the side

Bacterial oxidase test

Cytochrome c Oxidase Sigma-Aldric

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I - Wikipedi

Cytochrome P450 - Wikipedi

With reduced cytochrome oxidase, the interaction can be described as a simple secondorder process involving the a 3 2+ form and HCN. The stability constant for the complex is 1.8×10 3 M −1 and the rate constant for its formation 1.3X10 2 M −1 sec −1. 4 . The inhibition of the enzyme may occur in two ways. One involves the reduction of. This cytochrome a 3-azide complex is difficult to reduce, unlike the cytochrome a. Azide and cyanide compete for the iron atom in oxidized cytochrome. Carbon Monoxide CO competes with oxygen for binding to the reduced form of cytochrome c oxidase. Once bound to the cytochrome oxidase, oxygen cannot attach, and electron transport is stopped. CO.

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Cytochrome - Wikipedi

Review and cite CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE protocol, troubleshooting and other methodology information | Contact experts in CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE to get answer Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is a filamentously growing, spore-forming, obligately aerobic actinobacterium that uses both a copper aa3 -type cytochrome c oxidase and a cytochrome bd oxidase to respire oxygen. Using defined knockout mutants, we demonstrated that either of these terminal oxidases was capable of allowing the bacterium to grow and complete its developmental cycle

Cytochrome C Oxidase - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

to cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome a and cytochrome aa and by Warburg to his oxygen transporting enzyme. 3 We are indebted to Dr. Seymour Zenchelsky, of the Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, for generously making available the spectrographic equipment and for his advice during. Information on EC - cytochrome-c oxidase for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.9.3.1. transferred to EC Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded. EC Tree 1 Oxidoreductase Cytochrome Oxidase Reaction for Flattened Cortex (modified from DE Feldman) Perfusion (desired but optional) ~ 10 min: Wash with 100mL phosphate buffer (PBS; 0.1 M) + 0.5mL heparin + 1mL lidocaine (filter w/ qualitative fluted paper before use). ~ 15 min: Fix with 4% paraformaldehyde in PB (2.9 % PFA) with 2% sucros Abstract. Cytochrome oxidase is a ubiquitous housekeeping enzyme that holds one of the important keys to life. As a major oxidative enzyme and an energy-generating enzyme, cytochrome oxidase serves as a reliable indicator of neurons' oxidative capacity and energy metabolism

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Oxidase là các loại enzyme xúc tác cho phản ứng ôxy hóa-khử liên quan đến phân tử ôxy (O 2) là chất nhận electron.Trong các phản ứng này, ôxy bị khử thành nước (H 2 O) hoặc hydro peroxit (H 2 O 2).. Các oxidase thuộc nhóm oxidoreductase. Liên kết ngoài. Catalase & Oxidase tests video; MeSH Oxidase Cytochrome c oxidase (COX; EC, which is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, is the terminal enzyme in the respiratory chain.COX functions as a dimer, with each monomer consisting of 13 subunits, 10 of which are nuclear encoded. COX4 is a nuclear-encoded subunit that may play a role in regulating COX activity // Provide alternate content for browsers that do not support scripting // or for those that have scripting disabled. Please update to the latest version of Flash Player The Cytochrome c Oxidase Assay Kit is designed for the determination of cytochrome c oxidase activity in soluble and membrane bound mitochondrial samples. Cytochrome c oxidase [EC] is the principle terminal oxidase of high affinity oxygen in the aerobic metabolism of all animals, plants, yeasts, and som

Cytochrome oxidase - University of Illinois at Urbana

Cytochrome bd-I oxidase supports respiration when E. coli encounters hydrogen sulfide (from the external environment or through the inadvertant degradation of cysteine); cytochrome bd-I oxidase (unlike cytochrome bo oxidase) is resistant to the inhibitory effects of hydrogen sulfide Cytochrome Oxidase, A Synthesis. October 1982; Biochemical Society Transactions 10(5):434.2-434; DOI: 10.1042/bst0100434 Cytochrome a,a3 (n.). 1. A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunitsIt is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water LIBRIS titelinformation: Cytochrome Oxidase in Neuronal Metabolism and Alzheimer's Disease [Elektronisk resurs Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal component of the bacterial as well as the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex that catalyzes the conversion of redox energy to ATP. Human COX is composed of 13 subunits, the 3 largest of which are encoded by mitochondrial DNA and represent the catalytic core of the enzyme

Radical formation in cytochrome c oxidase

COX subunit IV is the largest nuclear-encoded subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX; EC, the terminal enzyme complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.COX is an example of an unusual class of multisubunit enzyme complex found in both mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells In a male child, born of consanguineous Palestinian parents, with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency (MC4DN7; 619051), Abdulhag et al. (2015) identified a homozygous c.58C-T transition (c.58C-T, NM_001863.4) in the COX6B1 gene, resulting in an arg20-to-cys (R20C) substitution at a conserved residue involved in an extended network of hydrogen bonds that serve to stabilize the protein Cyanide binds to the cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX) heme a 3-Cu B binuclear center to inhibit both cellular oxygen utilization and ATP production . Due to CcOX inhibition, cyanide initiates a catastrophic cascade of reactions leading to neurological and myocardial dysfunction and death if the inhibition is not reversed immediately ( Way, 1984 ) This oxidase enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of cytochrome c. Organisms which contain cytochrome c as part of their respiratory chain are oxidase-positive and turn the reagent blue/purple. Organisms lacking cytochrome c as part of their respiratory chain do not oxidize the reagent, leaving it colorless within the limits of the test, and are oxidase-negative Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube

Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency - PubMe

Abstract. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), a membrane enzyme in the respiratory chain, catalyzes oxygen reduction by coupling electron and proton transfer through the enzyme with a proton pump across the membrane. In all crystals reported to date, bovine CcO exists as a dimer with the same intermonomer contacts, whereas CcOs and related enzymes from prokaryotes exist as monomers citochromoksidazė statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Fermentas, turintis hemą ir oksiduojantis citochromą. atitikmenys: angl. cytochrome oxidase rus. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is a major mitochondrial respiratory chain defect that has vast genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. This study aims to identify novel causative genes of COX deficiency with only striated muscle-specific symptoms Mammalian Cytochrome c Oxidase Mechanism - Duration: 23:00. Catalyst University 941 views. Cytochrome c reductase | Complex 3 | Cytochrome c Ubiquinol Oxidoreductase - Duration: 1:14 Die Enzymfamilie der Häm-Kupfer Oxidasen . Die Cytochrom c Oxidase gehört zur Superfamilie der Häm-Kupfer Oxidasen, die bei allen aerob atmenden Organismen den terminalen Elektronenakzeptor der Atmungskette darstellen. Sie sind für nahezu sämtlichen Sauerstoffverbrauch der atmenden Organismen verantwortlich

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